Like I said before, it makes me suspicious that there's no ticking of the lifters, and you did say that the oil filter had filled up. I think it might be a good idea to check the oil pressure with a gauge at this point.
There is a way around pulling the oil pump to prime it. Your oil pump is built into the timing cover and driven by the crankshaft, so there's a fair amount of work involved with removing it. What I've done in the past to prime this style of oil pump is to undo the upper oil cooler line from the radiator and fill the line with oil from a 1 quart oil bottle with the little cone-shaped filler adapter from a bottle of gear oil, you probably know the kind I'm talking about. I always save those just for things like this, I screw it onto the bottle and slip a short length of appropriate size hose over the end with the other end hooked to the oil cooler line and squeeze the bottle to force oil into the line and down into the oil pump. I've done it several times and it's always worked.
'91 RRC-4.2, R380, LT230, GDE bumper with Smittybuilt 8K winch, Custom 3" lift, 33's, Equipe trailing arms, Rock Ware sliders, Custom diff guards, Maxyedor HD steering, TT/Detroit, Rovertracks axles
'61 Series II 88"
'94 RRC County LWB
"There are three kinds of men: The one that learns by reading, the few who learn by observation and the rest of them have to pee on the electric fence for themselves." -Will Rogers